In mineralogy, diamond is a metastable allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are organized in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Ruby is less secure than graphite, yet the conversion rate from ruby to graphite is negligible at typical problems. Diamond is renowned as a material with outstanding physical high qualities, the majority of which stem from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. Specifically, ruby has the highest solidity and thermal conductivity of any type of mass material. Those properties work out the major industrial application of diamond in faceting and polishing tools and the scientific applications in diamond blades and ruby anvil cells. As a result of its exceptionally stiff lattice, it could be diluted by really few kinds of contaminations, such as boron and nitrogen. Percentages of defects or impurities (concerning one per million of lattice atoms) shade ruby blue (boron), yellow (nitrogen), brownish (lattice problems), environment-friendly (radiation direct exposure), purple, pink, red or orange. The list goes on..Diamonds also have reasonably high optical dispersion (ability to disperse light of various colors).
10. The Heart of Eternity ($16 million) The stone that was made into the heart of Eternity Diamond was found at the world’s largest supplier of blue diamonds, the South African Premier Diamond Mine. Blue diamonds are incredibly rare with, on average, only one being found every year, and this one was an amazing find. The rough stone was 777 carats when it was dug up, and the owners waited until they had the perfect design idea before they started cutting it. The result was The Millenium Blue Diamonds- a series of heart, pear drop and oval shaped diamonds of which the Heart Of Eternity is the largest. In recent years it has been on tour at various exhibitions, including at the Millennium exhibition in London in 2000, followed by the Smithsonian museum. It was reportedly bought in 2012 by Floyd Mayweather to give to his fiancée, but no details of the selling price were ever revealed. The $16 million price tag is an estimate based on its size and color, but the finished piece could be worth far more when you consider what a rare piece it is. 9. The Moussaieff Red Diamond ($20 million) Diamonds come in many colors, but red ones are particularly rare. According to the Cape Town Diamond Museum there have only been up to maybe only 30 true red diamonds ever found, with most of them being less than half a carat. A farmer in Brazil found the rough stone that was to become the Moussaieff Red Diamond in the 90’s. At a weight of 13.90 carats it immediately became the center of attention. The William Goldberg Diamond Corporation from New York then purchased it, and decided to facet it into a triangular brilliant cut. This process would mean losing 8.79 carats, but the resulting cranberry colored 5.11 carat gem is simply stunning. It was originally named the Red Shield, but was renamed by the Moussaieff Jewelers when they purchased it for about $8 million at the turn of the century. This diamond has regularly been to exhibitions, being shown alongside other ones in the Smithsonian. Were it to be sold, it would be expected to cost at least $20 million. 8. The Perfect Pink ($23 million) When it sold for $23 million in 2010, the Perfect Pink Diamond was the most expensive jewel that had ever been sold in Asia. It weighs 14.23 carats, is graded as fancy intense pink, and is set in a rose and white gold ring with rectangular shaped diamonds on either side. Pure Pink diamonds of more than 10 carats are very unusual, with only 18 examples having gone to auction in the past 244 years; none of which was classified as intense pink at the time of sale. This makes the Perfect Pink a truly unique piece, and explains why it sold for ten million dollars more than had been expected. 7. The Wittelsbach Diamond ($23.4 million) The first records of the Wittelsbach Diamond come from back in the 17th century when it was sold to Louis XIV of France. It has a rare blue color, and weighs 35.56 carats. The stone has a royal history, having been passed down through families since the 1600’s. It went from France, to Spain, and over to Germany, where it accompanied the German King Louis III to his burial place in 1921. At some point in the 30’s it was sold off to raise money for the German government, and from here things get mysterious. No one seemed to know who had bought it, and it somehow got replaced with a piece of blue glass in the museum. Rumors of the actual diamond changing hands were rife in the following decades, until 1962 when it reappeared at a jewelery store in Belgium. It was sold in 2008 for $23.4 million and, to the dismay of diamond historians, the new owner decided that it should be recut, since it had originally been done in the early 1600’s. The resulting stone, now 21.06 carats, meant that both the color and quality were vastly improved, and the estimated price went through the roof.
The diamond acted as a carrier, keeping a piece of calcium silicate perovskite stable as it moved towards the Earth’s surface.
Calcium silicate perovskite (CaSiO3) is thought to be the fourth most abundant mineral on the planet, but until recently, it had never been observed in nature. Above about 400 miles beneath the Earth’s surface, this elusive mineral becomes unstable. But as Michelle Starr of Science Alert reports, researchers have found a piece of CaSiO3 that managed to make it close to the surface of the Earth, encased in a very small diamond.
The diamond sliver was discovered at South Africa’s Cullinan diamond mine, which is best known for yielding two of the largest diamonds in the British Crown Jewels. According to Brandon Specktor of Live Science, the piece of CaSiO3 was visible to the naked eye once the diamond was polished, but an international team of researchers collaborated on analyzing the precious stone with X-ray and spectroscopy tests. They published the results of this analysis in the journal Nature.
The diamond was discovered less than 0.6 miles below the Earth’s surface, but the researchers note in the study that it was in fact a “super-deep” diamond. Most of these sparkly stones originate between 93 and 124 miles below the Earth’s surface. The one containing the CaSiO3 likely formed at a depth of around 435 miles, where the pressure is approximately 240,000 times greater than the atmospheric pressure at sea level. When this extreme force formed the diamond, the CaSiO3 was trapped inside.
The mineral did not deform as the diamond moved towards the Earth’s surface because the diamond acted as “an unyielding container,” Graham Pearson, a mantle geochemist at the University of Alberta and a co-author of the study, explains in a statement.
Pearson also says that the findings of the new analysis suggest there may be “as much as zetta tonnes of this perovskite in deep Earth.” (Zetta is a unit prefix equal to a factor of 1021, or a one followed by 21 zeros.) Scientists have long known that CaSiO3 was plentiful, particularly in “slabs of oceanic crust that have plunged into the planet’s mantle at tectonic boundaries,” Specktor of Live Science writes. But since nobody has been able to keep the mineral stable at accessible depths, it has proven very difficult to study.
Researchers at the University of British Columbia are now working to learn more about the mineral’s age and origin. The recent find also yielded interesting information about the processes that shape Earth, offering strong evidence of a very deep “recycling” of oceanic crusts, as the authors of the study put it.
“The specific composition of the perovskite inclusion in this particular diamond very clearly indicates the recycling of oceanic crust into Earth’s lower mantle,” Pearson said in the statement. “It provides fundamental proof of what happens to the fate of oceanic plates as they descend into the depths of the Earth.”