Category Archives: TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE

DIAMONDS CAN BE FOREVER IN STORING DATA SCIENCE SAYS

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It’s said diamonds are forever and if the results of a new study published this week leads to a new, more practical use of the precious stones, data could also be stored on them, virtually forever.

According to a paper available at the journal Science Advances, diamonds can be used as a way to store vast amounts of data using atom-size flaws ordered in 3D arrays.

The authors, a team of physicists from City University of New York, used lasers to encode and read data on diamonds’ atomic-sized imperfections, known as a nitrogen vacancy centres.

They treated those minuscule spaces as magnets that could repel or absorb electrons and encoded simple gray-scale images, such as the faces of Albert Einstein and Erwin Schrödinger by adding an electron and taking another away using lasers.

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The scientists encoded images of Albert Einstein and Erwin Schrödinger on a diamond by adding and removing electrons with green and red lasers. (Image: Meriles Group, City College of the City University of New York)

The results of these experiments suggest that diamonds could be used to encode data in the form of negatively and neutrally charged defects, which lasers can read, write, erase and rewrite, the physicists said.

“With these advanced protocols, the storage capacity of a diamond would surpass what existing technologies can achieve,” the authors wrote in a blog. “This is just a beginning, but these initial results provide us a potential way of storing huge amount of data in a brand new way. We’re looking forward to transform this beautiful quirk of physics into a vastly useful technology.”

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Henry Sapiecha

Synthetic diamonds can be used in MRI scan to detect early stage cancers

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Synthetic diamonds can be used in MRI scan

Diamonds are considered as one of nature’s most beautiful inventions, but a new study published in the journal Nature Communications reveals these precious gems they are much more valuable than that, able to help detect early stage cancer.

An Australian research team led by Ewa Rej from University of Sydney discovered a method to use synthetic diamonds in MRI scans to identify cancerous tumours before they become life-threatening. “By attaching hyperpolarized diamonds to molecules targeting cancers the technique can allow tracking of the molecules’ movement in the body,” explained Rej.

Researchers already knew nano-diamonds hold non-toxic properties allowing them to deliver drugs during chemotherapy treatments, and decided to focus on hyperpolarizing the small stones so their signal is detectable by an MRI scanner.

“We thought we could build on these non-toxic properties realising that diamonds have magnetic characteristics enabling them to act as beacons in MRIs,” commented David Reilly from the university in an interview to the Business Standard.

MORE HERE >> www.newcures.info

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Henry Sapiecha

Nanoscale Diamond ‘Racetrack’ Becomes Breakthrough Raman Laser

circuitboard_blue image www.worldwidediamonds.info

Diamonds are renowned for their exquisite beauty and unrivaled durability, but they also are highly prized by scientists and engineers for their exceptional optical and physical properties.

In a first-of-its-kind demonstration of diamond’s promising technological applications, a team of engineers from Harvard University has developed a new class of Raman laser small enough to operate on a photonic chip. This optical component uses a nanoscale racetrack-shaped diamond resonator to convert one frequency of laser light to an entirely different range of wavelengths, opening up new possibilities for broadband data communications and a host of other applications.

The new proof-of-concept results are published today in The Optical Society’s high-impact journal Optica.

“We present the first observation of Raman lasing in a diamond based device integrated onto a silicon chip,” said Vivek Venkataraman, Lončar Laboratory, Harvard University and co-author on the paper. “This is, by far, the lowest operating power diamond Raman laser to date, and the longest wavelength produced in any kind of on-chip Raman laser.”

According to the research team, this demonstration marks diamond as only the second material besides silicon to show Raman lasing in a completely integrated photonic chip, which opens up promising new areas of research for both short-and-long range optical communications.

Raman Lasers: Light of a Different Color

Current on-chip lasers used in telecommunications operate at a narrow range of wavelengths around 1.55 microns. Though efficient, this limits the amount of data that can be transmitted through optical fibers. The ability to transmit and manipulate light across a broader range of wavelengths would help to alleviate some of the growing bottlenecks in telecommunications.

An efficient means of achieving this change of color or wavelength of a laser is through an optical phenomenon known as stimulated Raman scattering. If enough optical energy is pumped into a material, a small fraction of the input light loses energy to atomic vibrations and is shifted to a specific lower frequency. This results in amplification for the lower frequency shifted wave, which when combined with an optical resonator – a device that can trap and contain light for a brief period of time – can yield a Raman laser. Such Raman lasers are well-known in optics and have applications in medical devices, chemical sensing and telecommunications.

Though Raman lasing has been achieved in silicon, this material is not transparent across a wide range of colors, limiting its use to a few specific applications. Diamonds, on the other hand, are transparent across the ultraviolet, visible and infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Diamond can also use Raman scattering to provide giant color shifts across the entire spectrum. However, Raman lasers in diamond are traditionally made from bulky plates in macroscopic cavities. They also require careful alignment of components and comparatively high energy to operate. These factors have limited the ways they can be integrated into chip-based technologies.

The researchers were able to harness diamond’s stellar optical capabilities and create a new class of Raman laser by designing a nanoscale circular diamond resonator on a photonic chip.

The device works by sending pump laser light of one frequency down an optical waveguide that passes within hundreds of nanometers of the resonator allowing the light to, in essence, jump the tracks and begin racing around the circular resonator.

As a constant stream of pump photons flows into the resonator, each photon travels hundreds of times around the track until the light intensity builds up and Raman scattering produces lower energy photons known as Stokes photons. These Stokes photons, which are now at a different color, also circle around the resonator many times and stimulate the scattering of more pump photons into Stokes photons, eventually producing the coherent light of a laser. The new laser light then couples out of the resonator in the same process as before only in reverse, where it can be directed anywhere and used for a variety of applications.

Bridging Diamond and Silicon on the Nanoscale

To make the diamond micro-resonators, the researchers used standard nanofabrication techniques. First, a diamond thin film is bonded to the surface of a silicon chip. The desired pattern is written via electron beam lithography and then etched onto the surface using an oxygen plasma. The oxygen reacts with the carbon of the diamond producing carbon dioxide gas, which simply evaporates away, leaving the circular resonator pattern in its place.

“The manufacturing process is quite simple and enables us to produce resonators of multiple shapes and sizes that could be easily integrated into existing optoelectronic technologies,” said Pawel Latawiec, Lončar Laboratory, Harvard University and co-author on the paper.

The Raman laser reported in the paper works at wavelengths near two microns, which has been identified for next generation optical telecommunication networks.

The researchers also report that since diamonds are transparent across almost the entire optical spectrum, the operating principle they demonstrate can be readily translated to other wavelength ranges simply by using different pump lasers.

“Ours is a proof-of-principle demonstration,” noted Venkataraman, “and many aspects can be further optimized and improved for a commercial product. But these are all engineering and technological improvements and the physics itself is well understood and demonstrated to work.”

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Henry Sapiecha